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The Glycocalyx: The inner lining of the blood vessel as well as the inner lining of the GUT

glycocalyx Mend
The glycocalyx is the innermost and most delicate part of the arteries

The following discussion is a bit technical, but it is extremely important. Even if you do not entirely u

The endothelial glycocalyx is a vital structure found on the luminal surface of endothelial cells lining blood vessels throughout the body. Composed of a complex meshwork of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and associated plasma proteins, the glycocalyx forms a gel-like layer that coats the endothelial surface. This structure plays a crucial role in regulating vascular permeability, blood flow dynamics, and interactions between blood components and the vessel wall.

Protecting the lining of the arteries, blood vessels and gut inner wall

One of the primary functions of the endothelial glycocalyx is to act as a selective barrier between the circulating blood and the endothelial cells. Its dense and negatively charged composition repels negatively charged molecules such as proteins and blood cells, while allowing smaller molecules like water and ions to pass through. This selective permeability helps maintain the proper balance of fluid and solutes within the blood vessel lumen. Moreover, the endothelial glycocalyx serves as a dynamic sensor of mechanical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall. Shear stress, generated by blood flow, can influence the structure and function of the glycocalyx. In response to changes in shear stress, the glycocalyx may undergo alterations in thickness and composition, thereby modulating vascular tone and blood flow distribution.

Additionally, the glycocalyx plays a crucial role in mediating interactions between circulating cells, such as leukocytes and platelets, and the endothelium. Specific molecules within the glycocalyx, such as selectins and adhesion receptors, facilitate the tethering, rolling, and firm adhesion of these cells to the endothelial surface during processes like inflammation and hemostasis.

Furthermore, the endothelial glycocalyx is involved in regulating vascular homeostasis by modulating the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1. NO, produced by endothelial cells, promotes vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation, while endothelin-1 acts as a potent vasoconstrictor. The glycocalyx helps maintain the balance between these opposing vasomotor factors, thereby influencing vascular tone and blood pressure regulation.

Moreover, the glycocalyx functions as a reservoir for various bioactive molecules, including growth factors, cytokines, and enzymes. These molecules are sequestered within the glycocalyx, where they can be released in response to physiological stimuli, such as inflammation or tissue injury, to modulate cellular responses and tissue repair processes.

Diseases of the Glycocalyx

The endothelial glycocalyx has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Damage to the glycocalyx, caused by factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia, can lead to increased vascular permeability, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherogenesis.

Additionally, loss or impairment of the glycocalyx has been associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients, such as increased capillary leakage, tissue edema, and organ dysfunction. Strategies aimed at preserving or restoring glycocalyx integrity, such as administration of exogenous glycocalyx components or modulation of glycocalyx-degrading enzymes, hold promise for improving vascular function and clinical outcomes in various disease settings.

Glycocalyx Mend

We have treated patients with stroke, angina, chronic kidney failure using 3 capsules every morning. Laboratory data including C-RP, eGFR have demonstrated measurable improvement in 3 to 4 weeks. A positive response response is followed by continued, chronic administration.


The endothelial glycocalyx is a dynamic and multifunctional structure that plays a critical role in vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Its selective barrier function, mechano-sensory properties, role in cell adhesion and signaling, and involvement in vascular homeostasis make it a key determinant of vascular health and function. Further research into the structure, function, and regulation of the glycocalyx may uncover new therapeutic strategies for treating cardiovascular diseases and other vascular disorders.

Functional Medicine Doctor Orlando Florida
Practicing Functional Medicine for 42 years

David S. Klein, MD, FACA, FACPM

1917 Boothe Circle

Longwood, Florida 32750

Tel: 407-679-3337

Fax: 407-678-7246

Best Supplement for diabetes and weight loss
Berberine for Diabetes

Berberine, a natural alkaloid found in various plants like goldenseal and barberry, has been extensively studied for its diverse medicinal properties, showcasing potential benefits across several health domains. One prominent area of interest lies in its role in metabolic health. Berberine has demonstrated significant efficacy in managing diabetes and metabolic syndrome by improving insulin sensitivity, reducing blood sugar levels, and regulating lipid metabolism(1). These effects make it a valuable adjunct therapy for individuals with diabetes or those at risk of developing metabolic disorders.

Moreover, berberine exhibits notable anti-inflammatory properties (2). This attribute extends its potential therapeutic applications to conditions characterized by chronic inflammation, such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. By modulating inflammatory pathways, berberine offers a natural alternative for alleviating symptoms associated with these ailments, potentially complementing existing treatment strategies.

Berberine's antimicrobial activity further enhances its medical utility (3). Research indicates its effectiveness against various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This broad-spectrum antimicrobial action suggests berberine's potential in treating infectious diseases and underscores its role as a natural antimicrobial agent.

In addition to its metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties, berberine has emerged as a promising cardioprotective agent (4) . Studies have shown that berberine can help lower blood pressure, reduce cholesterol levels, and inhibit plaque formation in arteries, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Berberine's neuroprotective effects have also garnered attention (5).

Research suggests its potential in mitigating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Its ability to modulate neuronal function and protect against neurotoxicity makes it a compelling candidate for further investigation in the realm of neurological health.

Furthermore, berberine has shown promise in cancer therapy (6). Preclinical studies have demonstrated its ability to inhibit cancer cell growth, induce apoptosis, and suppress tumor metastasis. While further clinical research is needed, berberine's multifaceted anti-cancer mechanisms present exciting prospects for its inclusion in cancer treatment regimens.

Weight management and obesity treatment represent another area of interest for berberine research (7). Studies have indicated its potential to reduce body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and improve metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. These findings suggest berberine's role in addressing the global challenge of obesity and its associated health complications.

In summary, berberine exhibits a wide array of medical benefits, including its effects on metabolic health, inflammation, antimicrobial activity, cardiovascular health, neuro-protection, cancer therapy, and weight management. While much of the evidence supporting these benefits comes from preclinical studies, the accumulating research underscores berberine's potential as a versatile natural compound for promoting health and treating various diseases and conditions. Further clinical investigations are warranted to validate its efficacy, safety profile, and optimal therapeutic applications in clinical settings.

Note Well: The preferred genus and specie to get the most alkaloid per gram, best effect and best value, is Berberis Vulgaris. The Aristata Specie is not nearly as effective, although it is easier to find in most preparations. The real value is to look for the Vulgaris Specie.

Our typical regimen for Berberine:

For Diabetes and/or insulin resistance syndrome, we start with 500 mg twice daily, taken with food. Check blood sugar levels and adjust the dosage by an additional 500 mg until the blood sugar drops to the desired range.

Many patient experience loose bowel movements for the first few weeks, until the insulin and blood sugar levels equilibrate. Anticipate weight loss during this period to average 2-3 pounds per month, if you get the insulin below 10 and blood sugar below 90.


  1. Yin, J., Xing, H., & Li, D. (2008). Antidiabetic activities of aqueous extract from Berberis holstii and berberine in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 118(3), 479–484.

  2. Xu, D., Hu, M.-J., Wang, Y.-Q., & Cui, Y.-L. (2019). Antioxidant Activities of Quercetin and Its Complexes for Medicinal Application. Molecules, 24(6), 1123.

  3. Imenshahidi, M., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2019). Berberis Vulgaris and Berberine: An Update Review. Phytotherapy Research, 33(3), 504–523.

  4. Kong, W., Wei, J., Abidi, P., Lin, M., Inaba, S., Li, C., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Si, S., & Pan, H. (2004). Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. Nature Medicine, 10(12), 1344–1351.

  5. Ahmed, T., Gilani, A.-u.-H., & Abdollahi, M. (2015). Berberine and Neurodegeneration: A Review of Literature. Pharmacological Reports, 67(5), 970–979.

  6. Wang, N., Feng, Y., Zhu, M., Tsang, C.-M., Man, K., Tong, Y., & Tsao, S. W. (2019). Berberine Induces Autophagic Cell Death and Mitochondrial Apoptosis in Liver Cancer Cells: The Cellular Mechanism. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 120(4), 6616–6626.

  7. Zhang, H., Wei, J., Xue, R., Wu, J.-D., Zhao, W., Wang, Z.-Z., Wang, S.-K., Zhou, Z.-X., Song, D.-Q., Wang, Y.-M., & Pan, H.-N. (2018). Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism, 59(2), 285–292.

1917 Boothe Circle

Longwood, Florida 32750

Tel: 407-679-3337

Fax: 407-678-7246

Molds survive by creating chemicals called beta glucans. These protect the mold from being eaten by bacteria. These same chemicals can help protect us from infection, in exactly the same manner. Think about the history of Penicillin, a mold derivative.

Beta-glucans are a type of polysaccharide found in the cell walls of certain fungi, yeast, bacteria, and grains like oats and barley. They have gained attention for their potential health benefits, including their ability to modulate the immune system and potentially help with infections. Here's how beta-glucans may be relevant to infection:

Immune system modulation: Beta-glucans are known as immunomodulators. They can activate various immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer (NK) cells, which play essential roles in the body's defense against infections. By enhancing the activity of these immune cells, beta-glucans may help the body respond more effectively to pathogens. Beta Glucans derived from mold helps fight infections!

Antimicrobial properties: Some studies suggest that beta-glucans may have direct antimicrobial effects against certain pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. They can inhibit the growth of these microorganisms, making it harder for them to cause infections.

Best use of Beta Glucans may be in the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infection, including the common cold and influenza. Remember, COVID is a 'common cold virus.'

Respiratory infections: Beta-glucans have been studied in the context of respiratory infections, such as the common cold and influenza

a. Some research suggests that beta-glucan supplementation may reduce the incidence and severity of respiratory infections, potentially by enhancing the immune response in the respiratory tract.

Wound Healing may be improved with beta glucans derived from Mold!

Wound healing: Beta-glucans may also have a role in wound healing by promoting tissue repair and reducing the risk of infection in wounds.

It's important to note that while beta-glucans have shown promise in some studies, their effectiveness can vary depending on factors such as the specific source of the beta-glucans, the dosage, and the type of infection. Additionally, beta-glucans are typically considered as part of a broader approach to supporting immune health and infection prevention, rather than as a standalone treatment.


If you are considering using beta-glucans to support your immune system or for infection prevention, it's often advisable to consult with a healthcare professional. They can provide guidance on the appropriate dosage, potential interactions with medications, and whether beta-glucans are a suitable option for your specific health needs.

David S. Klein, MD, FACA, FACPM

1917 Boothe Circle

Longwood, Florida 32750

Tel: 407-679-3337

Fax: 407-678-7246

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