Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers or axons. These nerve fibers have a creamy white appearance due to myelin, a whitish substance that primarily contains fats and proteins. Myelin forms a protective, insulating sheath around certain axons, functioning as an electrical insulator and ensuring efficient nerve conduction. The breakdown, destruction, or loss of myelin from a nerve or nerves (demyelination), such as seen in certain neurodegenerative diseases, results in impaired nerve impulse transmission.
A rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, leading to an excessive accumulation of copper in certain tissues and organs, including the liver, brain, kidneys, or corneas of the eyes. Without prompt, appropriate treatment, the disorder may result in progressive liver disease, degenerative changes of the brain, psychiatric abnormalities, and other symptoms. Neurologic findings may include tremor; involuntary, rapid, jerky movements combined with relatively slow, writhing movements (choreoathetosis); impaired muscle tone and sustained muscle contractions, producing repetitive movements and abnormal posturing; increasingly slurred speech; and difficulties swallowing. Some patients may also experience increased irritability, anxiety, severe depression, unusual behaviors, or other psychiatric problems.