Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevation of fasting blood sugar (glucose). In adult onset diabetes (type II,) insulin levels are usually elevated. This occurs as a result of pathology of the insulin receptor, whereby the cellular need for insulin stimulation climbs, due to structural changes within the insulin receptor, itself. More on this, below.
This syndrome is largely ignored by the general medical profession. As a result of this, it is unlikely that your physician will recognize adrenal fatigue, even after it is demonstrated as being the underlying problem.
While the cause of the elevated blood glucose may be associated with either too little or too much insulin, the complications of chronically high serum glucose are devastating to the individual. Complications of uncontrolled blood sugar include increased risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and loss of nerve function. Regulating blood sugar for diabetics is therefore crucial to both the immediate as well as long-term care of diabetic patients.
Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) causes complications in patients with diabetes, regardless of whether it is type 1 or 2. While some complications can be of an acute nature (ketoacidosis due to low insulin or hypoglycemic shock due to insulin overdose), most complications are a result of years of unregulated and high serum glucose.
These complications include increased heart disease, retinopathy, nephropathy ending in renal failure, neuropathy, foot, and leg ulcers, impotence, and the inhibition of many important metabolic enzymes. Most of these complications are due to hyperglycemia-induced increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause glucose-induced activation of protein kinase c, increased formation of glucose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and increased glucose flux through the aldose reductase pathway. These vascular complications are cumulative but preventable.
Maintaining proper blood glucose is vital to preventing these complications. Additionally, there are a number of natural ingredients that can prevent and even reverse the progress toward these devastating complications.
Mehdi MZ, Srivastava AK: Organo-vanadium compounds are potent activators of the protein kinase B signaling pathway and protein tyrosine phosphorylation: mechanism of insulinomimesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Aug 15;440(2):158-64.
Organo-vanadium compounds (OVC) have been shown to be more effective than inorganic vanadium compounds in ameliorating glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in rodent models of diabetes mellitus. However, the precise molecular mechanism of OVC efficiency remains poorly defined. Since inorganic vanadium compounds have been found to activate several key components of the insulin signaling cascade, such as protein kinase B (PKB), the objective of the present study was to investigate if stimulation of PKB and its downstream target glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), are responsible for the more potent insulinomimetic effects of OVC. Among several vanadium compounds tested, vanadium (IV) oxo bis (acetylacetonate) and vanadium (IV) oxo bis(maltolato) markedly induced the phosphorylation of PKB as well as GSK-3beta compared to vanadyl sulfate (VS), an inorganic vanadium salts in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the insulin receptor (IR). Furthermore, the OVC were stronger inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity than VS. The higher PTPase inhibitory potential of the OVC was associated with more robust tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including the IRbeta subunit and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In addition, greater IRS-1/p85alpha interaction was elicited by the OVC than by VS. These data indicate that the higher PTPase inhibitory potential of OVC translates into greater phosphorylation of PKB and GSK-3beta, which, in turn, may contribute to a more potent effect of OVC on glucose homeostasis.
NOTE: This is partial explains why the use of ‘organic trace minerals’ is so important to general health. The balance of vanadium and chromium is delicate, and it is dangerous to simply ‘throw’ supplements at a patient and expect anything but trouble.
Both vanadium and chromium are necessary for health, but too much is toxic. Chromium should be in the ‘polyniccotinate’ salt, not the piccolonate form, that is generally available.
Pain in the Diabetic Patient
Pain is the most common complaint that brings patients to seek medical care, and diabetes is a common medical condition in the general population. It follows, then, that many patients with diabetes will complain of pain. A diabetic with pain is a far cry from a patient with diabetic neuropathy. It is common to encounter patients who suffer from diabetes as well as any number of other medical conditions that present with pain, but it is most unfortunate to find that many of these patients are improperly diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, when in fact they suffer from fibro-muscular pain, arthritic pain, or entrapment neuropathy.
Diabetic neuropathy does not imply nerve pathology coincidental to the presence of diabetes mellitus. Rather, diabetic neuropathy implies pathological changes of a characteristic nature that results from metabolic abnormalities. While this would appear to be a simplistic statement, the general approach to the complaint of pain in the diabetic population is probably the principal reason that diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to control. In the absence of an accurate diagnosis, successful treatment becomes unlikely.